The productivity and technical efficiency (T.E) of small-scale farmers in Nigeria were studied using the stochastic frontier production function analysis. Primary data was collected using multi-stage sampling techniques, from some villages in Niger State, Nigeria. Results showed that farmers were in the rational stage of production (stage II) as depicted by the returns to scale (RTS) of 0.27. The technical efficiency of the sole maize farmers was lower (0.5266) compared to that of the mixed (yam/maize) cropping farmers (0.7172). A mean efficiency of 0.622 was observed for all farmers. Over 50% of the mixed crop farmers had T.E. exceeding 0.70 as compared to 100% sole farmers who had less than 0.60. The study further showed that years of schooling, farming experience and cropping pattern positively affected T.E while increase in the age led to decrease in T.E.